History

The Mariposa War, Chapter 2: El Rey Tulareno

This is Part 2 of a 10-part series of posts entitled, The Mariposa War.
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To read the next post of this series, CLICK THIS LINK.
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El Rey Tulareno

Life with the Tularenos was working out well. Only a few months after being accepted by their tribe, James Savage once again became a family man. And then twice again and more so. That’s because he managed to marry several daughters of tribal leaders. And this won him political clout among the Tularenos. In fact, many of the Indians began calling him El Rey Huero, or The Blonde King.

But Savage would have none of this name. Instead, he brazenly instructed them to call him, El Rey Tulareno, which meant, King of the Tularenos. And they obediently complied. And this is how John Savage, recent immigrant from Illinois, became a king in California.

El Capitan is a loose translation of the Miwok word “Totokanula,” which means “Chief.” It attracts climbers from all over the world, over 30 of whom have fallen to their deaths since 1905. The Dawn Wall, subject of an eponymous 2017 documentary, is partially covered by the right branch in the foreground. Before the documentary, it was considered impossible to free-climb.

Now it was time for conquest. He organized his new subjects into an army, and waged war on neighboring tribes. The Tularenos fought bravely, and met with victory after victory, carving out a larger and larger kingdom for King James Savage.

In March of 1848, news broke that gold had been discovered in the nearby Sierra Nevadas. This was local news, for the time being, but King Savage realized he had to act quickly before word got out and the whole world descended upon his kingdom. Soon he staked some claims on the Tuolumne River, and organized 500 of his Indian subjects to work his placer mines. Then he established a trading post, to take advantage of newly arriving miners stricken with gold fever.

The Tuolumne River (pronounced Tu-ALL-uh-mee), where King Savage made a fortune in gold, with the help of his subjects.

His subjects found gold for him, and between the lucrative trading post, and all the gold the Indians dredged up, King James became a very wealthy man. In return, he rewarded his subjects with whiskey, beads, blankets, and other inexpensive items that sparked their fancy.

However, all successful kings and conquerors eventually meet their match, which was a lesson James Savage soon learned. Although he was rich, he wanted more, so he decided to expand his kingdom and his operations by establishing a trading post to the south, on the Merced River. But there was a problem with this. He hadn’t counted on the Ahwahnechees.

The Merced River, named by Spanish explorers after Our Lady of Mercy. Its headwaters are in the high Sierras, and it’s the main watercourse that drains Yosemite Valley. It eventually empties into the San Joaquin River in California’s Central Valley. This waterway was one of the southernmost rivers in North America to host chinook salmon, until dams blocked their migration in the late-19th century.

The Ahwahnechees were a mixed tribe of 200 Monos, Paiutes, Miwoks, and other local Indians, who had recently settled on the Merced River, about 25 miles upstream of Savage’s new trading post. In fact, they had settled in Yosemite Valley itself. Their name for the valley was, “Ahwahnee,” which means, “Big Mouth.”

But the white man, as well as neighboring tribes, called the Ahwahnechees, the “Yosemites,” which is a corruption of the word, “Uzumati.” This is a Miwok term meaning, “they are killers.” These “killers” were led by Chief Tenaya, and he saw the new trading post downstream from his valley as an encroachment upon his tribe’s territory.

North Dome and the Washington Column guard the entrance to Tenaya Canyon. Exfoliation, not glaciers, created the rounded granite domes commonly found in Yosemite National Park. Water freezing in cracks, expands the granite, forcing it to break off. As it exfoliates and slides away, it scours the surface of the underlying rock, filing it down at the edges and thus rounding it into a dome shape over millions of years.

20 replies »

  1. Well guess he found happiness and diddn’t stay lonely long, with all his marriages!
    What a humble name he chose for himself! I think he might have had a little pride!
    “The killers”?? Well I don’t think that is going to turn out well!

    Liked by 2 people

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